This concerns the very part of the Framework Convention that recognizes “common but differentiated” responsibilities between rich and poor countries, as well as the need to promote sustainable management of natural carbon sinks, including biomass, forests and oceans and other terrestrial, coastal and marine ecosystems. It is reflected in the Paris Agreement, which recognizes “the importance of ensuring the integrity of all ecosystems, including the oceans, and the protection of biodiversity, which some cultures recognize as Mother Earth, and recognizes the importance for some of the concept of “climate justice” when taking action to combat climate change. Goal 7 aims to include forests in the post-2020 climate agreement. The Paris Agreement, adopted in 2015, devotes a comprehensive article (Article 5) to land use and forests, which highlights the role of forests and other carbon sinks in achieving their overall mitigation objective. Since evaluating the NYDF Goal 7 agreement in 2016, when the Paris Agreement came into force in November 2016, we have considered that the target has been achieved. Since then, we have carried out a slight evaluation of the following indicators in order to monitor the effectiveness of the Paris Agreement in order to encourage measures to reduce forests. This article cannot indicate what an ideal “cascade” would look like to adapt to the subtle differentiation of the Paris Agreement, not least because the Paris Agreement does not make it mandatory to transmit information on adaptation in the NDCs. In addition, detailed bases for countries` adaptation efforts and needs would be needed. Although emerging economies have the highest percentage (14%) including measures, plans or strategies for all five sectors (see Figure 2), LDCs and the most appropriate SIDSs.
The validity of the results is underlined by similar cascades concerning the mention of vulnerable sectors and climate risks by the NDCs or the number of countries that incorporate adjustment cost data into their NCOs (see Pauw et al. 2016). We also thank the public for the 2018 Earth System Governance Conference, where an earlier version of this article was presented. Finally, we thank the Frankfurt School of Finance and Management, the University of Eastern LaFin and the African Centre for Technology Studies for their financial contribution to making this open access article available. Km supported by the Green Talents Fellowship of other funds of the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) for a research stay at the German Institute of Development/German Institute for Development Policy (DIE) in the early stages of this research.